Box automat

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Similar but larger devices are also used for heavy-duty commercial and industrial vehicles and equipment. This system uses a fluid coupling in place of a friction clutch , and accomplishes gear changes by hydraulically locking and unlocking a system of planetary gears.

These systems have a defined set of gear ranges, often with a parking pawl that locks the output shaft of the transmission to keep the vehicle from rolling either forward or backward.

Some machines with limited speed ranges or fixed engine speeds, such as some forklifts and lawn mowers , only use a torque converter to provide a variable gearing of the engine to the wheels.

In contrast to conventional automatic transmissions, a CVT uses a belt or other torque transmission scheme to allow an "infinite" number of gear ratios instead of a fixed number of gear ratios.

A semi-automatic retains a clutch like a manual transmission, but controls the clutch through electrohydraulic means.

The obvious advantage of an automatic transmission to the driver is the lack of a clutch pedal and manual shift pattern in normal driving.

This allows the driver to operate the car with as few as two limbs possibly using assist devices to position controls within reach of usable limbs , allowing individuals with disabilities to drive.

The lack of manual shifting also reduces the attention and workload required inside the cabin, such as monitoring the tachometer and taking a hand off the wheel to move the shifter, allowing the driver to ideally keep both hands on the wheel at all times and to focus more on the road.

Control of the car at low speeds is often easier with an automatic than a manual, due to a side effect of the clutchless fluid-coupling design called "creep" that causes the car to want to move while in a driving gear, even at idle.

The primary disadvantage of the most popular hydraulic designs is reduced mechanical efficiency of the power transfer between engine and drivetrain, due to the fluid coupling connecting the engine to the gearbox.

Advances in transmission and coupler design have narrowed this gap considerably, but clutch-based transmissions manual or semi-automatic are still preferred in sport-tuned trim levels of various production cars, as well as in many auto racing leagues.

Being a steam engineer, Munro designed his device to use compressed air rather than hydraulic fluid, and so it lacked power and never found commercial application.

Modern automatic transmissions can trace their origins to an early " horseless carriage " gearbox that was developed in by the Sturtevant brothers of Boston , Massachusetts.

This unit had two forward speeds, the ratio change being brought about by flyweights that were driven by the engine. At higher engine speeds, high gear was engaged.

As the vehicle slowed down and engine RPM decreased, the gearbox would shift back to low. Probably the first use of which was in the Wilson-Pilcher made between and In this form of gearbox the planetary gears are in constant mesh, and all that is required is to use a mechanism to fix or release the rotation of the outer gear ring.

The vehicle also had a separate cone clutch operated by a foot pedal which could be latched in position to run the engine when stationary, e.

Like more modern automatic transmissions the gears were helical to reduce noise, and were sealed inside an oil-filled gearbox.

There are no reports of the manufacturer seeking to automate the changing of the gears, though the design eliminated the requirement for using the foot clutch except when starting or stopping.

The Model T, in addition to being cheap and reliable by the standards of the day, featured a simple, two speed plus reverse planetary transmission using straight cut gears whose operation was manually controlled by the driver using pedals.

However, an article published by the Wall Street Journal credits the German auto parts company ZF Friedrichshafen for the invention, which would have occurred shortly after World War I.

In , both REO and General Motors developed semi-automatic transmissions that were less difficult to operate than a fully manual unit.

These designs, however, continued to use a clutch to engage the engine with the transmission. The General Motors unit, dubbed the "Automatic Safety Transmission", was notable in that it employed a power-shifting planetary gearbox that was hydraulically controlled and was sensitive to road speed, anticipating future development.

Invented early in the 20th century, the fluid coupling was the answer to the question of how to avoid stalling the engine when the vehicle was stopped with the transmission in gear.

Chrysler itself never used the fluid coupling with any of its automatic transmissions, but did use it in conjunction with a hybrid manual transmission called " Fluid Drive " the similar Hy-Drive used a torque converter.

Available as an option on Oldsmobiles and later Cadillacs , the Hydra-Matic combined a fluid coupling with three hydraulically controlled planetary gearsets to produce four forward speeds plus reverse.

The transmission was sensitive to engine throttle position and road speed, producing fully automatic up- and down-shifting that varied according to operating conditions.

It also found use during World War II in some military vehicles. From to , Lincoln cars were also available with the Hydra-Matic.

Mercedes-Benz subsequently devised a four-speed fluid coupling transmission that was similar in principle to the Hydra-Matic, but of a different design.

In , GM introduced the "Jetaway" Hydra-Matic, which was different in design than the older model. Addressing the issue of shift quality, which was an ongoing problem with the original Hydra-Matic, the new transmission utilized two fluid couplings, the primary one that linked the transmission to the engine, and a secondary one that replaced the clutch assembly that controlled the forward gearset in the original.

The result was much smoother shifting, especially from first to second gear, but with a loss in efficiency and an increase in complexity. Another innovation for this new style Hydra-Matic was the appearance of a Park position on the selector.

The original Hydra-Matic, which continued in production until the mids, still used the reverse position for parking pawl engagement. Each of these transmissions had only two forward speeds, relying on the converter for additional torque multiplication.

In the early s, BorgWarner developed a series of three-speed torque converter automatics for American Motors , Ford Motor Company , Studebaker , and several other manufacturers in the US and other countries.

Chrysler was late in developing its own true automatic, introducing the two-speed torque converter PowerFlite in , and the three-speed TorqueFlite in The latter was the first to utilize the Simpson compound planetary gearset.

General Motors produced multiple-turbine torque converters from to These included the Twin-Turbine Dynaflow and the triple-turbine Turboglide transmissions.

The shifting took place in the torque converter, rather than through pressure valves and changes in planetary gear connections.

Each turbine was connected to the drive shaft through a different gear train. These phased from one ratio to another according to demand, rather than shifting.

The Turboglide actually had two speed ratios in reverse, with one of the turbines rotating backwards. By the late s, most of the fluid-coupling four-speed and two-speed transmissions had disappeared in favor of three-speed units with torque converters.

Also around this time, whale oil was removed from automatic transmission fluid. Many transmissions also adopted the lock-up torque converter a mechanical clutch locking the torque converter pump and turbine together to eliminate slip at cruising speed to improve fuel economy.

Some manufacturers use a separate computer dedicated to the transmission called a transmission control unit TCU , also known as the transmission control module TCM , which shares information with the engine management computer.

In this case, solenoids turned on and off by the computer control shift patterns and gear ratios, rather than the spring-loaded valves in the valve body.

This allows for more precise control of shift points, shift quality, lower shift times, and on some newer cars semi-automatic control, where the driver tells the computer when to shift.

The result is an impressive combination of efficiency and smoothness. The predominant form of automatic transmission is hydraulically operated; using a fluid coupling or torque converter, and a set of planetary gearsets to provide a range of gear ratios.

Hydraulic automatic transmissions consist of three major components: A type of fluid coupling, hydraulically connecting the engine to the transmission.

This takes the place of a friction clutch in a manual transmission. A torque converter differs from a fluid coupling , in that it provides a variable amount of torque multiplication at low engine speeds, increasing breakaway acceleration.

A fluid coupling works well when both the impeller and turbine are rotating at similar speeds, but it is very inefficient at initial acceleration, where rotational speeds are very different.

This torque multiplication is accomplished with a third member in the coupling assembly known as the stator , which acts to modify the fluid flow depending on the relative rotational speeds of the impeller and turbine.

The stator itself does not rotate, but its vanes are so shaped that when the impeller which is driven by the engine is rotating at a high speed and the turbine which receives the transmitted power is spinning at a low speed, the fluid flow hits the vanes of the turbine in a way that multiplies the torque being applied.

This causes the turbine to begin spinning faster as the vehicle accelerates ideally , and as the relative rotational speeds equalize, the torque multiplication diminishes.

Consisting of planetary gear sets as well as clutches and bands. These are the mechanical systems that provide the various gear ratios , altering the speed of rotation of the output shaft depending on which planetary gears are locked.

To effect gear changes, one of two types of clutches or bands are used to hold a particular member of the planetary gearset motionless, while allowing another member to rotate, thereby transmitting torque and producing gear reductions or overdrive ratios.

Operating much as a ratchet, it transmits torque only in one direction, free-wheeling or "overrunning" in the other. Bands are used for braking; the GM Turbo-Hydramatics incorporated this.

Not to be confused with the impeller inside the torque converter, the pump is typically a gear pump mounted between the torque converter and the planetary gearset.

It draws transmission fluid from a sump and pressurizes it, which is needed for transmission components to operate.

Early automatic transmissions also had a rear pump for towing purposes, ensuring the lubrication of the rear-end components. The governor is connected to the output shaft and regulates the hydraulic pressure depending on the vehicle speed.

Modern designs have replaced the mechanical governor with an electronic speed sensor and computer software. The engine load is monitored either by a throttle cable or a vacuum modulator.

The pressure coming from this pump is regulated and used to run a network of spring-loaded valves, check balls and servo pistons. The valves use the pump pressure and the pressure from a centrifugal governor on the output side as well as hydraulic signals from the range selector valves and the throttle valve or modulator to control which ratio is selected on the gearset; as the vehicle and engine change speed, the difference between the pressures changes, causing different sets of valves to open and close.

The hydraulic pressure controlled by these valves drives the various clutch and brake band actuators, thereby controlling the operation of the planetary gearset to select the optimum gear ratio for the current operating conditions.

However, in many modern automatic transmissions, the valves are controlled by electro-mechanical servos which are controlled by the electronic [engine control unit] ECU or a separate transmission control unit TCU, also known as transmission control module TCM.

Primarily made from refined petroleum, and processed to provide properties that promote smooth power transmission and increase service life, the ATF is one of the few parts of the automatic transmission that needs routine service as the vehicle ages.

The multitude of parts, along with the complex design of the valve body, originally made hydraulic automatic transmissions much more complicated and expensive to build and repair than manual transmissions.

In most cars except US family, luxury, sport-utility vehicle, and minivan models they have usually been extra-cost options for this reason.

Mass manufacturing and decades of improvement have reduced this cost gap. In some modern cars, computers use sensors on the engine to detect throttle position, vehicle speed, engine speed, engine load, etc.

The computer transmits the information via solenoids that redirect the fluid the appropriate clutch or servo to control shifting. A fundamentally different type of automatic transmission is the continuously variable transmission , or CVT , which can smoothly and steplessly alter its gear ratio by varying the diameter of a pair of belt or chain -linked pulleys , wheels or cones.

Some continuously variable transmissions use a hydrostatic drive — consisting of a variable displacement pump and a hydraulic motor — to transmit power without gears.

Some early forms, such as the Hall system which dates back to [10] , used a fixed displacement pump and a variable displacement motor, and were designed to provide robust variable transmission for early commercial heavy motor vehicles.

These concepts provide zero and reverse gear ratios. When the user pulls the lever, the water drains and the automaton refills the basin.

Rosheim describes it as follows: When more water is used, a second float at a higher level trips and causes the appearance of a second servant figure — with a towel!

Samarangana Sutradhara , a Sanskrit treatise by Bhoja 11th century , includes a chapter about the construction of mechanical contrivances automata , including mechanical bees and birds, fountains shaped like humans and animals, and male and female dolls that refilled oil lamps, danced, played instruments, and re-enacted scenes from Hindu mythology.

Villard de Honnecourt , in his s sketchbook, show plans for animal automata and an angel that perpetually turns to face the sun.

At the end of the thirteenth century, Robert II, Count of Artois built a pleasure garden at his castle at Hesdin that incorporated several automata as entertainment in the walled park.

The work was conducted by local workmen and overseen by the Italian knight Renaud Coignet. It included monkey marionettes, a sundial supported by lions and "wild men", mechanized birds, mechanized fountains and a bellows-operated organ.

The park was famed for its automata well into the fifteenth century before it was destroyed by English soldiers in the sixteenth. The Renaissance witnessed a considerable revival of interest in automata.

Giovanni Fontana created mechanical devils and rocket-propelled animal automata. Numerous clockwork automata were manufactured in the 16th century, principally by the goldsmiths of the Free Imperial Cities of central Europe.

These wondrous devices found a home in the cabinet of curiosities or Wunderkammern of the princely courts of Europe. Hydraulic and pneumatic automata, similar to those described by Hero, were created for garden grottoes.

Leonardo da Vinci sketched a more complex automaton around the year The robot could, if built successfully, move its arms, twist its head, and sit up.

The monk is driven by a key-wound spring and walks the path of a square, striking his chest with his right arm, while raising and lowering a small wooden cross and rosary in his left hand, turning and nodding his head, rolling his eyes, and mouthing silent obsequies.

From time to time, he brings the cross to his lips and kisses it. A new attitude towards automata is to be found in Descartes when he suggested that the bodies of animals are nothing more than complex machines - the bones, muscles and organs could be replaced with cogs, pistons and cams.

Thus mechanism became the standard to which Nature and the organism was compared. Thus, in , when Louis XIV was still a child, an artisan named Camus designed for him a miniature coach, and horses complete with footmen, page and a lady within the coach; all these figures exhibited a perfect movement.

Labat, General de Gennes constructed, in , in addition to machines for gunnery and navigation, a peacock that walked and ate.

Athanasius Kircher produced many automata to create Jesuit shows, including a statue which spoke and listened via a speaking tube.

He also constructed the Digesting Duck , a mechanical duck that gave the false illusion of eating and defecating, seeming to endorse Cartesian ideas that animals are no more than machines of flesh.

In , a chess-playing machine called the Turk , created by Wolfgang von Kempelen , made the rounds of the courts of Europe purporting to be an automaton.

The Turk was operated from inside by a hidden human director, and was not a true automaton. Maillardet, a Swiss mechanic, created an automaton capable of drawing four pictures and writing three poems.

According to philosopher Michel Foucault , Frederick the Great , king of Prussia from to , was "obsessed" with automata.

Automata, particularly watches and clocks, were popular in China during the 18th and 19th centuries, and items were produced for the Chinese market.

Strong interest by Chinese collectors in the 21st century brought many interesting items to market where they have had dramatic realizations. In , Italian inventor Innocenzo Manzetti constructed a flute -playing automaton, in the shape of a man, life-size, seated on a chair.

The automaton was powered by clockwork and could perform 12 different arias. As part of the performance it would rise from the chair, bow its head, and roll its eyes.

The period to is known as "The Golden Age of Automata". During this period many small family based companies of Automata makers thrived in Paris.

From their workshops they exported thousands of clockwork automata and mechanical singing birds around the world.

It is these French automata that are collected today, although now rare and expensive they attract collectors worldwide. Contemporary automata continue this tradition with an emphasis on art, rather than technological sophistication.

Some mechanized toys developed during the 18th and 19th centuries were automata made with paper. Despite the relative simplicity of the material, paper automata require a high degree of technical ingenuity.

The potential educational value of mechanical toys in teaching transversal skills has been recognised by the European Union education project Clockwork objects, enhanced learning: Examples of automaton clocks include Chariot clock and Cuckoo Clocks.

The Cuckooland Museum exhibits autonomous clocks. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with automation as a process. This article is about a self-operating machine.

For other uses, see Automaton disambiguation. For Automata, see Automata disambiguation. This section possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted citations that do not verify the text.

Please help improve this article by checking for citation inaccuracies. January Learn how and when to remove this template message.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Robotics , History of robots , and Android robot. Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology.

Retrieved 28 May

However, in many modern automatic transmissions, the valves are controlled by electro-mechanical servos which are controlled by the electronic [engine control unit] ECU or a separate transmission control unit TCU, also known as transmission control module TCM.

Primarily made from refined petroleum, and processed to provide properties that promote smooth power transmission and increase service life, the ATF is one of the few parts of the automatic transmission that needs routine service as the vehicle ages.

The multitude of parts, along with the complex design of the valve body, originally made hydraulic automatic transmissions much more complicated and expensive to build and repair than manual transmissions.

In most cars except US family, luxury, sport-utility vehicle, and minivan models they have usually been extra-cost options for this reason.

Mass manufacturing and decades of improvement have reduced this cost gap. In some modern cars, computers use sensors on the engine to detect throttle position, vehicle speed, engine speed, engine load, etc.

The computer transmits the information via solenoids that redirect the fluid the appropriate clutch or servo to control shifting.

A fundamentally different type of automatic transmission is the continuously variable transmission , or CVT , which can smoothly and steplessly alter its gear ratio by varying the diameter of a pair of belt or chain -linked pulleys , wheels or cones.

Some continuously variable transmissions use a hydrostatic drive — consisting of a variable displacement pump and a hydraulic motor — to transmit power without gears.

Some early forms, such as the Hall system which dates back to [10] , used a fixed displacement pump and a variable displacement motor, and were designed to provide robust variable transmission for early commercial heavy motor vehicles.

These concepts provide zero and reverse gear ratios. In this system, the transmission has fixed gears, but the ratio of wheel-speed to engine-speed can be continuously varied by controlling the speed of the third input to a differential using motor-generators.

A dual-clutch transmission , or DCT sometimes referred to as a twin-clutch transmission or double-clutch transmission , is a modern type of semi-automatic transmission and electrohydraulic manual transmission.

It uses two separate clutches for odd and even gear sets. It can fundamentally be described as two separate manual transmissions with their respective clutches contained within one housing, and working as one unit.

Also known as semi-automatic transmission SAT and several other names, this automatic transmission type utilizes a regular clutch and gear setup but automates the action by the use of sensors, actuators, processors, and pneumatics.

Fuel efficiency is their top priority and it rivals that of manual transmissions. AMT is based on an electronic control unit and a hydraulic system that supervise the use of the clutch and the gear shifting, allowing the driver to change gear without using the clutch, either sequentially or fully automatically.

Conventionally, in order to select the transmission operating mode, the driver moves a selection lever located either on the steering column or on the floor as with a manual on the floor, except that automatic selectors on the floor do not move in the same type of pattern as manual levers do.

In order to select modes, or to manually select specific gear ratios, the driver must push a button in called the shift-lock button or pull the handle only on column mounted shifters out.

Some vehicles position selector buttons for each mode on the cockpit instead, freeing up space on the central console.

Depending on the model and make of the transmission, these controls can take several forms. However most include the following:. Most automatic transmissions include some means of forcing a downshift Throttle kickdown into the lowest possible gear ratio if the throttle pedal is fully depressed.

In many older designs, kickdown is accomplished by mechanically actuating a valve inside the transmission.

Most modern designs use a solenoid -operated valve that is triggered by a switch on the throttle linkage or by the engine control unit ECU in response to an abrupt increase in engine power.

Mode selection allows the driver to choose between preset shifting programs. For example, Economy mode saves fuel by upshifting at lower engine speeds, while Sport mode aka "Power" or "Performance" delays upshifting for maximum acceleration.

Some transmission units also have Winter mode, where higher gear ratios are chosen to keep revs as low as possible while on slippery surfaces.

The modes also change how the computer responds to throttle input. Conventionally, automatic transmissions have selector positions that allow the driver to limit the maximum ratio that the transmission may engage.

On older transmissions, this was accomplished by a mechanical lockout in the transmission valve body preventing an upshift until the lockout was disengaged; on computer-controlled transmissions, the same effect is accomplished by firmware.

The transmission can still upshift and downshift automatically between the remaining ratios: Some transmissions will still upshift automatically into the higher ratio if the engine reaches its maximum permissible speed in the selected range [ citation needed ].

Some automatics, particularly those fitted to larger capacity or high torque engines, either when "2" is manually selected, or by engaging a winter mode, will start off in second gear instead of first, and then not shift into a higher gear until returned to "D.

This is done to reduce torque multiplication when proceeding forward from a standstill in conditions where traction was limited — on snow- or ice-covered roads, for example.

Some transmissions have a mode in which the driver has full control of ratios change either by moving the selector, or through the use of buttons or paddles , completely overriding the automated function of the hydraulic controller.

With the near-universal prevalence of electronically controlled transmissions, they are comparatively simple and inexpensive, requiring only software changes, and the provision of the actual manual controls for the driver.

The amount of true manual control provided is highly variable: Since these gearboxes also have a throttle kickdown switch, it is impossible to fully exploit the engine power at low to medium engine speeds [ dubious — discuss ] [ citation needed ].

As well as the above modes there are other modes, dependent on the manufacturer and model. L was used in some early GMs to indicate L ow gear, being the same as the 1 position on a Chrysler, locking the transmission into first gear.

Some automatic transmissions modified or designed specifically for drag racing may also incorporate a transbrake as part of a manual valve body.

Activated by electrical solenoid control, a transbrake simultaneously engages the first and reverse gears, locking the transmission and preventing the input shaft from turning.

This allows the driver of the car to raise the engine RPM against the resistance of the torque converter, then launch the car by simply releasing the transbrake switch.

Most cars sold in North America since the s have been available with an automatic transmission, based on the fact that the three major American car manufacturers had started using automatics.

Vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions are not as complex to drive. Consequently, in some jurisdictions, drivers who have passed their driving test in a vehicle with an automatic transmission will not be licensed to drive a manual transmission vehicle.

Conversely, a manual license will allow the driver to drive vehicles with either an automatic or manual transmission. A conventional manual transmission is frequently the base equipment in a car, with the option being an automated transmission such as a conventional automatic, semi-automatic, or CVT.

Torque converters and CVT transmissions make changes in vehicle speed less apparent by the engine noise, as they decouple the engine speed from vehicle speed.

Lockup torque converters that engage and disengage at certain speeds can make these speeds unstable — the transmission wastes less power above the speed at which the torque converter locks up, usually causing more power to the wheels for the same throttle input.

Torque converters respond quickly to loss of traction torque by an increased speed of the driving wheels for the same engine speed. Thus, under most conditions, where the static friction is higher than the kinetic friction, the engine speed must be brought down to counteract wheelspin when it has occurred, requiring a stronger or quicker throttle reduction by the driver than with a manual transmission, making wheelspin harder to control.

This is most apparent in driving conditions with much higher static friction than kinetic, such as packed hard snow that turns to ice by friction work , or snow on top of ice.

Earlier hydraulic automatic transmissions were almost always less energy efficient than manual transmissions due mainly to viscous and pumping losses parasitic losses , both in the torque converter and the hydraulic actuators.

A relatively small amount of energy is required to pressurise the hydraulic control system, which uses fluid pressure to determine the correct shifting patterns and operate the various automatic clutch mechanisms.

Manual transmissions use a mechanical clutch to transmit torque, rather than a torque converter, thus avoiding the primary source of loss in an automatic transmission.

Manual transmissions also avoid the power requirement of the hydraulic control system, by relying on the human muscle power of the vehicle operator to disengage the clutch and actuate the gear levers, and the mental power of the operator to make appropriate gear ratio selections.

Thus the manual transmission requires very little engine power to function, with the main power consumption due to drag from the gear train being immersed in the lubricating oil of the gearbox.

The on-road acceleration of an automatic transmission can occasionally exceed that of an otherwise identical vehicle equipped with a manual transmission in turbocharged diesel applications.

Turbo-boost is normally lost between gear changes in a manual whereas in an automatic the accelerator pedal can remain fully depressed.

Automatic transmission families are usually based on Ravigneaux , Lepelletier , or Simpson planetary gearsets.

Each uses some arrangement of one or two central sun gears, and a ring gear, with differing arrangements of planet gears that surround the sun and mesh with the ring.

An exception to this is the Hondamatic line from Honda , which uses sliding gears on parallel axes like a manual transmission without any planetary gearsets.

Although the Honda is quite different from all other automatics, it is also quite different from an automated manual transmission AMT.

Many of the above AMTs exist in modified states, which were created by racing enthusiasts and their mechanics by systematically re-engineering the transmission to achieve higher levels of performance.

These are known as "performance transmissions". Example of manufacturers of high performance transmissions are General Motors and Ford. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the mechanical transmission type. For other uses of "AT", see AT disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. North West Transmissions Ltd.

Retrieved 11 October AW North Carolina, Inc. Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 2 December Toronto Star , Jim Kenzie Nov.

Archived from the original on Retrieved 9 May Part of the Automobile series. Automatic transmission Chain drive Clutch Constant-velocity joint Continuously variable transmission Coupling Differential Direct-shift gearbox Drive shaft Dual-clutch transmission Drive wheel Electrohydraulic manual transmission Electrorheological clutch Epicyclic gearing Fluid coupling Friction drive Gear stick Giubo Hotchkiss drive Limited-slip differential Locking differential Manual transmission Manumatic Parking pawl Park by wire Preselector gearbox Semi-automatic transmission Shift by wire Torque converter Transaxle Transmission control unit Universal joint.

Electric motor Hybrid vehicle drivetrain Electric generator Alternator. Retrieved from " https: Automotive transmission technologies Automobile transmissions Mechanical power control American inventions.

Julian—Gregorian uncertainty Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: These wondrous devices found a home in the cabinet of curiosities or Wunderkammern of the princely courts of Europe.

Hydraulic and pneumatic automata, similar to those described by Hero, were created for garden grottoes. Leonardo da Vinci sketched a more complex automaton around the year The robot could, if built successfully, move its arms, twist its head, and sit up.

The monk is driven by a key-wound spring and walks the path of a square, striking his chest with his right arm, while raising and lowering a small wooden cross and rosary in his left hand, turning and nodding his head, rolling his eyes, and mouthing silent obsequies.

From time to time, he brings the cross to his lips and kisses it. A new attitude towards automata is to be found in Descartes when he suggested that the bodies of animals are nothing more than complex machines - the bones, muscles and organs could be replaced with cogs, pistons and cams.

Thus mechanism became the standard to which Nature and the organism was compared. Thus, in , when Louis XIV was still a child, an artisan named Camus designed for him a miniature coach, and horses complete with footmen, page and a lady within the coach; all these figures exhibited a perfect movement.

Labat, General de Gennes constructed, in , in addition to machines for gunnery and navigation, a peacock that walked and ate. Athanasius Kircher produced many automata to create Jesuit shows, including a statue which spoke and listened via a speaking tube.

He also constructed the Digesting Duck , a mechanical duck that gave the false illusion of eating and defecating, seeming to endorse Cartesian ideas that animals are no more than machines of flesh.

In , a chess-playing machine called the Turk , created by Wolfgang von Kempelen , made the rounds of the courts of Europe purporting to be an automaton.

The Turk was operated from inside by a hidden human director, and was not a true automaton. Maillardet, a Swiss mechanic, created an automaton capable of drawing four pictures and writing three poems.

According to philosopher Michel Foucault , Frederick the Great , king of Prussia from to , was "obsessed" with automata.

Automata, particularly watches and clocks, were popular in China during the 18th and 19th centuries, and items were produced for the Chinese market.

Strong interest by Chinese collectors in the 21st century brought many interesting items to market where they have had dramatic realizations.

In , Italian inventor Innocenzo Manzetti constructed a flute -playing automaton, in the shape of a man, life-size, seated on a chair. The automaton was powered by clockwork and could perform 12 different arias.

As part of the performance it would rise from the chair, bow its head, and roll its eyes. The period to is known as "The Golden Age of Automata".

During this period many small family based companies of Automata makers thrived in Paris. From their workshops they exported thousands of clockwork automata and mechanical singing birds around the world.

It is these French automata that are collected today, although now rare and expensive they attract collectors worldwide. Contemporary automata continue this tradition with an emphasis on art, rather than technological sophistication.

Some mechanized toys developed during the 18th and 19th centuries were automata made with paper. Despite the relative simplicity of the material, paper automata require a high degree of technical ingenuity.

The potential educational value of mechanical toys in teaching transversal skills has been recognised by the European Union education project Clockwork objects, enhanced learning: Examples of automaton clocks include Chariot clock and Cuckoo Clocks.

The Cuckooland Museum exhibits autonomous clocks. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with automation as a process.

This article is about a self-operating machine. For other uses, see Automaton disambiguation. For Automata, see Automata disambiguation. This section possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted citations that do not verify the text.

Please help improve this article by checking for citation inaccuracies. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs expansion.

You can help by adding to it. Robotics , History of robots , and Android robot. Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology.

Retrieved 28 May The earliest known analog computing device is the Antikythera mechanism. Art and the Church in Byzantium. An Encyclopedia , 2 , Routledge , p.

Mechanism and Machine Theory. Archived from the original on June 29, October , "The Museum of Music: History of Indian Theatre, Volume 1.

The Roots of Ayurveda: Selections from Sanskrit Medical Writings. Science and Civilisation in China: Retrieved 19 July A History of Modern Psychology.

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